Diabetes Mellitus, Causes, Symptoms, Complications and preventing

Diabetes Mellitus, Causes, Symptoms, Complications and preventing

Diabetes Mellitus is a condition in which the pancreas unable to produce sufficient insulin or body unable to utilize the insulin properly.

Diabetes is a silent killer disease. After diagnosis must be controlled the sugar level in the body and treated as well under the advises of physician and principals of medical science and must not ignore, otherwise it is very harmful for human body and life as well.

What is diabetes?

A healthy person lives a normal life. Healthy diet provides healthy life. He does work normal and does not feel any disability to do the work. Sudden in body fitness feeling some abnormality and he feels a lot of thrust and drink too much water.

His urinal system disturbs and he goes to urination more than normal. Living a healthy life sudden he feels a lot of tiredness and weakness. His diet is well balanced, but he begins to lose weight. These all symptoms indicate to an abnormality. These signs and symptoms indicate to diabetes.

Due to Diabetes disease the body has lost the ability of insulin production and insulin usage perfectly.

Causes of Diabetes and Symptoms

Imbalance Diet
Luxurious lifestyle (Less walk & Exercise
Insulin deficiency or less production

Common signs and symptoms of diabetes

1- Excessive thirst and increased urination
3-Weight loss without any reason
4- Blurred vision
5- Tingling hands and feet
6-Any cut, wound or bruises may heal very slowly or get infected early
7-Sexual Dysfunction among Men and Women
8- Feeling hungry more often even though eating properly
9- Skin diseases

What is insulin ?

Insulin is a very important hormone for living bodies on the planet. It is a hormone, a gland pancreas produces this hormone .

The foods we eat the body turns that food into energy. In other words we can call this energy sugar or glucose. With the help of this insulin the glucose reached into the body cells. As the insulin circulates in the body its chemical messages reached to the cells, then the cells receive the glucose from the blood. If the pancreas produces insufficient insulin or on insulin or the body unable to utilize the insulin, in this case the glucose remain in the body for long time without any utilization. This condition called diabetes.

Types of Insulin

The body gets glucose from foods that we eat, and the body also gets energy from this glucose, so glucose is important for body survive. We can understand the diabetes when we will know about glucose, insulin and energy process in the body.

How insulin works

A gland in the body, pancreas, produces a hormone called insulin, who provides glucose to the body through the bloodstream. In the diabetic condition, this disease, affects the body’s ability to insulin production or insulin use.

Our body, makes the energy from foods that we eat, in the shape of glucose or sugar. Insulin controls the glucose and convert the glucose into glycogen. Insulin delivers this energy to the cells. Insulin sends messages to the body cells. The cells accept the messages and receive glucose.

In the case of where the pancreas stops to produce insulin, or produces less insulin than required, then diabetes symptoms start to appear and body will not consume glucose properly. Extra sugar will remain in the body. The blood glucose level remains higher than normal level for individuals with diabetes.

What is diabetes, how person suffer from diabetes, to understand this, we have to understand how glucose is normally processed in the body.

The role of glucose

The body is composed of various tissues. The tissues are composed of cells. The body needs energy to be live, and it gets energy from sugar. The glucose is the source of energy for the cells to build muscles and tissues.

Our body makes sugar from foods that we eat. Some quantity of sugar, our liver stores and remaining we consume. Our liver is a store of many minerals. Sometime, our body gets sugar from liver to complete need. The role of insulin to convert sugar into glucose and absorbs into blood stream. The body cells get the sugar from bloodstream with the help of insulin.

Your liver stores and makes glycogen. Whenever, we eat foods, our body starts to make sugar. But in the case of hungry and blood sugar level is low, the liver breaks down stored glycogen into glucose and fulfill the need of sugar to keep sugar level normal range.

Diabetes, Causes and Symptoms

There are no common causes for diabetes that fit all types of diabetes. Diabetes Mellitus causes depend on types of diabetes. There are many types of diabetes and every type has different causes of diabetes because the causes of diabetes depending on the individual and the types. The causes of diabetes type 1 are different from the causes of Diabetes Mellitus type 2 and type gestational.


A lot of diseases come to children in heredity and diabetes is one of them. After long research it discovered that parents of 50% diabetic person were diabetic persons. In the parents in some cases the fathers were suffering from diabetes, in some cases the mothers were diabetics and some cases both father and mother were suffering diabetes. In the parent if the mother is suffering from diabetes, then there are only the possibilities of diabetes. On the contrary, if the mother is normal and father is suffering from diabetes then 50% of children may can suffer from diabetes.

In the case where both father and mother are diabetic then all children or most of the children may suffer from diabetes. Second thing is lifestyle and life behavior. If they avoid to taking much sugar, do exercise regularly and prevent themselves from obesity, then the chances of suffering diabetes are none or very few. Otherwise, there is great risk of diabetes for them.

Before marriage, it must be checkup for diabetes, both boy and girl.


What is lifestyle?

Human living slandered habits, foods, sleeping and waking times, physical activities, and income sources etc, called lifestyle. Lifestyle plays key role in person’s life. There is a deep relation between lifestyle and health. As the diabetes is concerned the lifestyle puts the effects on human health and due to luxurious lifestyle chances of suffering from diabetes increase.

It is observed that villagers suffer from diabetes less than persons living in big cities because villagers live in the village and towns spend mostly their lives with a lot of work and physical activities. They consume all the calories by doing works, so they are protected from obesity and diabetes as well. On the other side there are more chances to suffer from diabetes for rich and feudal persons because their lifestyle is different from poor and farmers.

Luxury lifestyle Effects

The richest and feudal persons live luxury life, where there is no much physical activity and their feed is full of fats and proteins. Due to their luxury life there is no consumption of extra calories and fats that they get in foods. The richest people living in big cities suffer from diabetes more than persons live in villages or small cities.

These people spend all the day in offices and shops. Businessmen and rich people keep moving by personal transport and nothing to exercise. They take meals in restaurants very healthy, full of fats and proteins having more chances to suffer from diabetes. So luxury lifestyle without many physical activities is more risk for diabetes.

Imbalance Diet

Another main cause of diabetes is imbalance diet. Eating too much in the meals, fatty foods like fast food and bakery products with soda drinks is harmful for human health. Some people are very fond of all these things. The persons eat foods unlimited full of fats and proteins and do not consume calories, they can suffer from diabetes.

You will be wonder to know that 20% diabetic persons can control their sugar level only by balance diet.According the height and weight, a diabetic person must take 1200 to 1600 calories in a day. The food, we eat daily normally contain carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals and proteins.

We have to need 50% carbohydrates, 30% fats and 20% proteins.

1 Gram—————————————————————Calories

1 gram carbohydrate——————————————-4 calories

1 gram protein—————————————————-4 calories

1 gram fat———————————————————–9 calories

If we consume all the calories that we get from the diet in a day of physical activities, our weight will not increase. Otherwise, these calories will convert into fat and our weight will increase, and in result obesity. We have to prevent ourselves from obesity to avoid diabetes because obesity is the main cause of diabetes. We have to remember that sweet products and too much fats increase sugar level in the body. The fruits are the best substitute of sweets.


Stress, fever, tension, mental disorder is all human enemies. These elements develop bad effects on human, mental, psychological and physical health. Man becomes physically and mentally weak and may be able to suffer from diseases like depression, tension, high blood pressure and heart diseases.

The religion advises to avoid for fear and shocks. These all mental problems develop risk of diabetes. Suffering long time in mental problems or attack of sudden shock is also main and basic cause of diabetes.

According to the diabetes physicians, many people come to the clinic complaining some physical disorder, but after some blood tests they found suffering from diabetes. The stress and mental disorder living long time in stress or tension push the people toward diabetes. This condition, called stress, diabetes.

In stress, blood vessels may be able to be shrink, so blood cannot circulate properly in vessels and body organs affected badly. Sometime, some glands, hormones put side effects on other hormones. Pancreas’s hormone specially also affected by other hormone. In this condition the pancreas does not produce sufficient insulin. Insufficient insulin does not control sugar level. In result man may can suffer diabetes.

Luxurious lifestyle (Less walk & Exercise)

Luxurious lifestyle means, living with exercise and physical activities. Some people are very fond of healthy foods, like fast foods and sweet products. Usually they overeat meals with soft drink, a lot of calories, but after over eat they do not perform enough exercise to consume these calories that they had taken from healthy foods. Due to this practice for a long time and no calorie consumption, they become overweight.

Obesity is one of the main diabetes causes and obesity develops due to less exercise and less physical activities. If we do not extra calories, then these calories will convert into fats. These fats will create hurdles in blood sugar circulation in the body. Due to this improper blood sugar circulation, the blood glucose level in the blood grows high. Remaining the blood sugar level high in the body for a longer time than normal, it is a great risk of of diabetes. A normal person consumes 1.2 calories in a minute in relax condition while 5 calories consumes in active (keep moving) condition.Because a man need extra energy for movement, so he consume extra calories to get energy.

Consuming extra calories are best wanting to avoid obesity. Exercise and body movement keep the body circulation better, and body parts consume the insulin well. Heart and blood vessels become clear and strong. The body muscles consume extra glucose through exercise, so insulin demand consumes blood sugar in the body and sugar level normal.

Insulin deficiency or less production is the real and main cause of diabetes

We divide this issue in three conditions:

  • The pancreas stops to produce any quantity of insulin.
  • Due to any fault, the pancreas produces less insulin than body requirement.
  • The body does not consume properly, due to any reason like obesity or medicine reaction etc.

What is the reason of improper insulin production?

A gland named Pancreas produces insulin to control the blood sugar in the body,but due to some known or known reasons, pancreas stops for his hormone production.
Sometime pancreas produces sufficient insulin, but due to any reason insulin does not consume glucose properly in the body parts, as an example the extra fats in the body in overweight persons cannot consume insulin properly.

Sometime other factors may be able to effect insulin work, although this conditions are very few, as an example, adrenal glands hormone converts the glycogen stored in the liver into sugar or glucose. The blood glucose level increases high in the blood. Just like the pituitary gland in the brain activate the adrenal gland to do so, but it is very rear. The main reason of diabetes is less insulin production by beta cells of pancreas cells of Langerhans.

Common signs and symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus

Here are some symptoms to look for and when to consult the diabetes:-

1- Excessive thirst and increased urination

Both thirst and urination are linked with each other. In Diabetes Mellitus both symptoms appear at the same time. Excessive thirst (also called Polynesia) and increased urination (also known as polyuria) is classic diabetes symptoms. When a person feels a lot of thirst and drinks much water the result is much urination.

In Diabetes Mellitus extra sugar builds in blood and kidneys are being under pressure to extra work to filter the blood and absorb the extra sugar. Because kidneys can’t keep up, the excess sugar is excreted into your urine, dragging along fluids from your tissues. This triggers more frequent urination, so persons have to need many time urination.


There are many reasons to feel Fatigue but in diabetes, it is very remarkable symptomatic. Due to lack of insulin or not functioning properly, glucose does not circulate properly in the bloodstream, so, the body cannot get sufficient energy, the person feels fatigue by this reason. In the case of too much urination many important chemical exhaust from the body, and dehydration occur in the body. The body needs to fill these chemical, otherwise the body feels weak and after a little exercise the persons feel fatigue. Sometime without any exercise fatigue can be felt.

3-Weight loss without any reason

It observed that many people losses their weight without any reason. They do not take any step to loss the extra weight. The sudden weight fluctuations also fall under the umbrella of possible Diabetes Mellitus symptoms. When anyone suffers from diabetes, his pancreas does not produce insulin permanently or less insulin, the body does not get energy properly from glucose.

To get sufficient energy body uses extra calories from the body, so due this process the body weight going to loss. At Diabetes Mellitus urination rate increased, a lot of calories consumed and the body consumes extra fats from body cells-leading to constant hunger, in result the body loses the weight. The combined effect is potentially rapid weight loss, especially if you have type diabetes

4- Blurred vision

When the sugar level becomes high in the blood some changes come in the body. Blurry vision is one of those changes. Due to lack of insulin, glucose level becomes high tissue’s fluid may have pulled to the lenses of the eyes. These affect the ability of eye vision. If this disease does not treat for long time new blood vessels are formed in the retina the back part of your eye, the damage can have established for retina. If blood sugar level remains high for the long time, it can be main symptom of Diabetes Mellitus.

Any one feel blurry vision, he should immediately consult physician to know the reason. This blurry vision may can a Symptom of Diabetes Mellitus. However, if we cannot check these changes thoroughly, later these changes can lead complications like blindness and loss of vision.

5- Tingling hands and feet

Anyone feels tingling in hands or feet, sometime, both, both are symptoms of diabetes. In Diabetes Mellitus, if the blood sugar level remains uncontrolled for a long time, this condition damage the nerves. Due to remaining for long tine, many changes occur like tingling in the feet and hands, burning pain in the body parts and sensation loss in some body parts. These are symptoms of diabetes; affected persons must consult a doctor as he feels these conditions.

Any cut, wound or bruises may heal very slowly or get infected early

Normal person when wounded or burned is holed up in a normal period. Some time, some persons wounded or burned do not heal in the same time, but they heal very slowly. Sometime these wounds get infected. The slow healing or getting infection is symptoms of diabetes. It observed that this condition is very common in diabetes.

What is its reason?

Still medical science did not discover its real and true reason. Because the diabetes affects the vital power and becomes weak. This vital power is that helps wounds and burns to heal early. In case of vital power weak, it does not help wounds to heal well time. Sometime not healing wounds in time it can may infection. Slow healing process of wounds or burning is a symptom of diabetes. Anyone suffering this condition immediately consult the doctor to treatment.

7-Sexual Dysfunction among Men and Women

Someone feels weakness in sexual function and intercourse. This is a symptom of Diabetes Mellitus. Sexual dysfunction may be able to occur with many other causes, but it is also symptomatic  of diabetes. We can guess this symptom with other relative diabetes’s symptoms.In any person, remaining blood sugar level high can block blood vessels and also can damage nerve system. Nervous system of genital organs also can be damaged by remaining blood sugar level high for long time.

This condition can prevent or weaken erection and ejaculation in men and dry up virginal lubrication in women. Harmonic changes come in men after remaining blood sugar high for a long time. Harmon Testosterone production decreased, due to this deficiency or lacking, the sexual desire does not produce in men. If a man complains to sexual dysfunction or woman,s dry virginal lubrication, they must consult a diabetes specialist for medical checkup whether they are suffering diabetes or not

8- Feeling hungry more often even though eating properly

When we eat food rich in carbohydrate or sugar products, our sugar level becomes high. The pancreas, a gland produces insulin, which circulate the glucose into the bloodstream to consume the extra glucose. The body cells absorb sugar from blood to get energy. In Diabetes Mellitus, due to any reason, the pancreas unable to produce sufficient insulin, insulin does not reach in the body cells and body cells cannot get energy from glucose, so blood sugar level becomes high.

Remaining blood sugar level high, body muscle cells cannot get enough energy, they need further glucose, so send messages to the brain to provide some carbohydrate or sugar to get glucose for energy. In its reply we feel hungry though we have eaten a meal.

But our body still needs energy sources like foods. In the other condition, where the blood sugar level is low, In this case the body needs more insulin to send glucose into cells to fitful energy demand. In both conditions feeling hungry more often is a symptom of diabetes. Anybody feels hungry more often even though eating properly is due to lack of insulin, and it is a symptom of diabetes. He must consult the doctor immediately.

9- Skin diseases

A gland pancreas produces a hormone called insulin that is responsible to control the sugar level in the blood. When we eat a meal or some sweet products, blood sugar level become higher. Insulin consuming the glucose in the blood and we get energy by consuming the glucose.

Due to any reason the pancreas is unable to produce insulin or produces insufficient insulin so due to this reason the blood sugar level remains high. In this condition many complications may can develop in the body, some of them are skin diseases.

When the blood glucose level is high, the body tries to exhaust the extra glucose from the body by increasing urination. Due to exhausting much fluid from the body by urine, the fluid level in the body become low, so skin becomes dry. Dry body is a big cause of nerve damage (neuropathy). We can suffer skin diseases like rough skin, itching, dry skin, cracks and peeling of skin etc.

Human vital power become weak due to remaining blood sugar level high for a long time. In this condition the vital power cannot fight against external attacks by bacterial and fungal, further diabetic person affected by any infection more often. In diabetes human immune system becomes much weaker. In case of any cuts, wounds and burns may have healed very slowly.

Symptoms of skin complications in diabetes

Anybody observes these skin symptoms like cuts, wound, itching and other skin disease problems are healing very slowly ,though doing necessary treatment, he should consult a skin specialist to search that what are the real causes of these diseases. These diseases indicate to diabetes.

Vomiting and Nausea complaints more daily diet plan, we eat a meal. By meals some quantity of carbohydrate and other mineral mix in blood. Carbohydrate and simple sweet products provide sugar to blood. The insulin, a hormone converts the sugar into glucose and control the sugar level. In case of the sugar level is high the pancreas produces extra insulin to keep the glucose level normal.

Due to any reason, pancreas could not produce sufficient insulin. In this condition sugar level becomes high and sometime blood sugar remains high for a long time. Sometime diet that we eat having less carbohydrate, so due to lack of sugar or by any other reason blood sugar becomes low. In both conditions, sometimes stomach disturbed and we can feel nausea and vomiting.

If after doing normal medication the symptoms do not go away, in this case we must consult to the doctor to investigate the real causes.

Nausea and vomiting are symptoms of diabetes. Anybody feels nausea or vomiting and these symptoms are not removed after necessary treatment, he should consult the doctor immediately.

These symptoms may be able to link to diabetes.

Some other symptoms of diabetes are under: –

Dry mouth with Feeling very thirsty
Irritability Breath that has a sweet,
fruity, or acetone odor
Much pain feeling in the body
Headache more often
Frequent gum disease/infection

In pre-diabetes in some cases, some symptoms can be harmless. But later due to remaining these symptoms for long times may can develop some type of complications.

Even if you haven’t had diabetes symptoms.Knowing possible diabetes symptoms can lead to early diagnosis and treatment as well, for a lifetime of better health. If you’re experiencing any of the up diabetes signs and symptoms, consult your doctor for investigation.

Diabetes Types

There are three main types of diabetes. Diabetes, type 2 mellitus, diabetes, type 1 mellitus and diabetes, gestational . When we study the symptoms, causes, conditions and ages of diabetes. We see that some symptoms are different than others while some causes variant to other.

Diabetes Main Types

We can divide the diabetes in three main types.

Diabetes type 2 Mellitus ,
Diabetes type 1 Mellitus
Diabetes gestational

When we rather consider about the symptoms, causes of diabetes or study conditions and ages of diabetes, then we find differences between symptoms and causes, depending on age and conditions.

In type 2 diabetes mellitus, due to any reason, the pancreas does not produce sufficient insulin according to need or body does not utilize the insulin properly to fulfill the need. In case of when pancreas unable to produce any quantity of insulin, called diabetes type 1. Mostly, the children suffer from Diabetes type

In women during pregnancy some symptoms of diabetes appear, in this case we called this type of diabetes, Diabetes gestational. Some time in the beginning, symptoms of diabetes type 1 appear in a children, but later the symptoms of diabetes type 2 also appear in child, in this case this type called Diabetes LADA. When a child suffers from diabetes 2 after diabetes type 1 and in this process adult with diabetes.

Developing Diabetes in Children

We have observed that sometime diabetes appears in the childhood and sometime in adulthood age. If the symptoms of diabetes appear in adult, in the case, we call it diabetes type 2. When symptoms appear in childhood, in this case, we called it diabetes type 1.

There is a third condition, in this case, the symptoms of diabetes type 2 can appear in child having diabetes type 1, later in adult age. This condition, called Diabetes LADA. LADA is an abbreviation of Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of Adulthood.

Diabetes, type 1 appear very suddenly in children, wheres the diabetes LADA develops slowly because its symptoms appear similar to diabetes type 2. This is reason sometime the physician may mistakenly diagnose LADA as type 2 diabetes. Diabetes LADA when appears in the young person is defined as non- insulin diabetes and usually diagnosed at person age of 30 to 50 years.

Why diabetes divided in many types ?

Like this there are some differences between all types of diabetes depending on symptoms, age variation,and insulin production. The different types of diabetes development in the body depending on the reasons and symptoms appear in the body.

Diabetes MODY variate to diabetes type 2 due to some conditions. Normally diabetes symptoms appear in obese person but diabetes LADA symptoms appear without obesity and this is main difference between LADA and diabetes type 2.

Diabetes insipidus does not diagnosed on blood sugar level but it is diagnosed on excessive urination and complication develop in the body. Like this secondary diabetes variant to the other types of diabetes in health conditions causes and symptoms.

The persons, who are taking steroids, are mostly at a higher risk of Diabetes type 2. People who are suffering from any disease and they need to take steroids for longer periods, they are at great risk of developing steroid induced diabetes. Juvenile diabetes develops in the persons of young age.

Learn more about the different types of diabetes:

Diabetes Types
Type 2 diabetesType 1 diabetesGestational diabetes
Diabetes TypesDrug-induced DiabetesDouble diabetes
Juvenile DiabetesBrittle DiabetesSecondary Diabetes
Diabetes InsipidusDiabetes MODYDiabetes LADA
Steroid-induced Diabetes

In a Special post about diabetes types we will separately mention the causes and symptoms of all types all related details.

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